The Arctic environment and climate is a magnet of different types of scientific research. Some of these sciences you will know. Others will be less familiar.
Do a web search to find out more - but remember, not everything on the web is accurate!
- atmospheric chemistry
- molecular biology
Scientists have found some amazing creatures living only 800 km from the North Pole. Watch the woolly bear caterpillar (BBC i-player) which lives only 800km from the North Pole.
Scientists work at research stations or in the field. The Svalbard Archipelago in Northern Norway is home to the Ny-Alesund Arctic Research station, an international research community, established in 1991.
Find out more about this region and the international research community
Click on the mobile and surf through Andy's and Tavi's photos of Svalbard
Interview - working on a melting ice floe!
What is Science on a melting ice floe like?
In July 2008, Twenty scientists were evacuated from an Arctic ice floe after it began to break up earlier than expected. The floating ice was home to 'North Pole 35', a research station where scientists lived and worked through the entire Arctic winter. Roughly three kilometres by five kilometres in September, the ice floe is now only a few hundred metres wide and dangerously unstable.
What kind of measurements did you take?
Mainly atmospheric tests to measure temperature and wind speed, and we also made ozone measurements using instruments carried on balloons. Meanwhile, the Russian researchers took conductivity, temperature and density profiles of the water. The data will be useful to help build better climate models. Because conditions were relatively favourable for most of the time, we managed to retrieve almost twice as many data sets as expected. One of the most striking things we found was the frequent occurrence of extreme temperature inversions, with air at a few hundred metres above sea level being up to 15°C warmer than on the ground. We saw the same contrasts with wind speeds. These phenomena have never been measured in situ before.
Did you see any polar bears?
Plenty! I guess there were 30 or so close encounters, with bears prowling around our cabins or marching right through the middle of our little village. You have to be a bit careful, but there were no really life-threatening incidents. We used our flare pistols quite a lot, though, to drive them away. The biggest problem was that it took more than a month in the first place to find a suitable ice floe for setting up the camp. By the time the station was fully operational it was the end of October. We had no assistance in setting everything up, so with winter round the corner it really became a race against time. Building an airstrip long enough for cargo planes to land was also a challenge.
The Arctic winter must be quite extreme?
It was actually raining when we first arrived on the ice floe. But winter and darkness came fast as we drifted north, all the while hurrying to set up the wooden cabins, the mess and our instruments. The winter was tough - on quite a few days the temperature fell below -40°C. Luckily, conditions didn't get quite as extreme as they might have, and we didn't get into any really massive storms. But when on 8 March the Sun first appeared beyond the horizon again it was still a relief. We held a little feast, with shish kebabs and all, to celebrate its return.
Source: 16 July 2008 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2008.956
Activity: Write a letter
Use the information in the interactive and the interviews with the scientists to write a letter describing what it is like to live and work on Svalbard.
"Announcement of Opportunity"!
Each year an 'Announcement of Opportunity' is posted on the NERC and BAS websites. This is a chance for scientists or students to study at the centre. They must submit a proposal and be prepared to fund their own travel and subsistence costs. The station will support their research. Successful applicants have to go through a detailed induction process, with the emphasis on safety in this wild environment, which includes field training, in firearms, radio, skidoo driving, and glacier travel.
Safety is very important in the field - for more information on essential equipment see the NERC Arctic Station Handbook
Activity: Polar Packing
Jill Jones has been successful in her application to work in Svalbard. She has muddled up her lists of clothing and equipment. Help her to pack.
Every scientist has to enrol on a rifle training course to protect against polar bears!
- Read the 'Ny-Alesund Safety Guide' written by the station manager Nick Cox